If you are familiar with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) used to treat anxiety disorders, you might also be familiar with exposure therapy, a CBT technique that confronts the cause of anxiety in order to re-evaluate the actual danger present, and learn healthy ways to deal with the resulting fear. For example, if you are afraid of heights, exposure therapy might gradually expose you to different height levels, while teaching you better strategies to manage the stress it creates. Exposure therapy can be very effective - in a successful exposure, fear could begin with a high distress measurement of 80% to 90% and end significantly lower, at 10 to 20%. Ideally, this learning process should continue to lead patients to report a lowered distress rating whenever confronted by the feared object or event.

虽然有效,使用曝光疗法来了解令人恐惧的事件或物体并不危险需要时间,因为患者通常需要成功地反复地面对令人恐惧的刺激以看到降低的痛苦评分。然而,最近的研究已经发现,可能有一种方法可以加快暴露治疗的益处,甚至提高结果。

这种药物可以提高学习,减少焦虑症状更快

D-cycloserine (DCS), a memory enhancing drug that acts on specific nerve-cell receptors in the brain, can be used to improve the learning that takes place during exposure practices. DCS can help your cells respond to the neurotransmitter glutamate, which is important in a process integral to anxiety treatment called extinction learning. Extinction learning is the basis for exposure therapy: it allows anxious patients to learn that feared outcomes are unlikely to occur. After a patient with a phobia of spiders is exposed repeatedly to spiders without any negative consequences, the patient learns that the feared stimulus does not result in the feared outcome, and is able to overcome his or her fear.

在治疗过程中,使用DCS也可以导致焦虑症状的速度更快,甚至可以减少整体所需的治疗课程数量。与其他焦虑相关问题的症状相同,如社交焦虑症,金宝博188滚球推荐,强迫症,强迫症和后创伤后应激障碍。

因为DCS是一种记忆增强剂,而不是一种抗焦虑药(一种减少焦虑的药物),仅服用DCs不会降低焦虑。DCS只能有助于减少焦虑症状与曝光程序,因为它有助于增强治疗期间发生的学习(即,通过表现为提升内存)。

DCS Side Effects are Minimal, but Dose Timing Remains Uncertain

什么时候用作与暴露治疗结合的认知增强剂,使用50和250毫克DCS的剂量,通常只是几周。在此剂量,DCS副作用与安慰剂的副作用相当,没有已知或记录的副作用。

然而,科学家们尚未完全了解最佳的剂量和剂量定时(之前或之后)。作为最近的一项研究表明,DCS的有效性可能取决于暴露本身的成功。换句话说,只有在暴露治疗期间与焦虑反应的患者,然后在暴露的结束时经历显着降低焦虑可能会受益于药物。该研究表明,在不成功的曝光中(即,当患者的焦虑没有峰值然后减少时),DCS可以改善焦虑的反应。1

Next Steps in Using DCS to Enhance Exposure Therapy

Given that DCS has not yet been approved by the FDA as a drug used to enhance CBT for anxiety, it is currently unavailable to the public. However, a new research study examining DCS's role in exposure therapy is being conducted at three universities: Boston University, University of Texas at Austin, and Rush University. The study will examine the effectiveness of giving DCS to patients only when fear subsides after an exposure.

如果您在社交场合担心并住在其中一所大学附近,请联系相应的联系以获取有关可能参与临床试验的更多信息。

  • 波士顿大学/** /
  • University of Texas at Austin/** /
  • 赶富大学/ ** /
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来源

1霍夫曼,SG。(2014)。D-环晶治疗焦虑症:使良好的暴露更好,曝光不良。188体育平台apppubmed。从...获得http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24677604.

原始出版日期:

更新时间:2018年1月29日