洗手是防止许多疾病传播的最佳方法之一,包括感冒,流感,食物疾病和其他传染病。然而,有些人是如此担心细菌,他们在公共场所在公共场所进行了严格的照顾,以避免触摸可能是细菌侵染和经常使用手动消毒剂和抗菌肥皂的表面,以尽量减少风险。对于大多数情况而言,这些预防措施将担忧休息,并且是日常生活的一部分。然而,对于一些人来说,关于清洁和细菌的担​​忧是一种痴迷,导致强迫,通常是令人振奋的行为。

痴迷恐惧细菌或污垢和强迫率一遍又一遍地洗手是最常见的表现之一强迫症(OCD)。对于患有OCD的人来说,手工洗涤远远超出了清洁度的关注。这是极端的行为,其真实目的是减少强烈的恐惧和焦虑的感受。对细菌和强迫性疾病的关注之间的区别是基于关注的程度影响和破坏 - 甚至占主导地位 - 一个人的生命。

强迫症和过度洗手

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by unmanageable fears and thoughts that compel repetitive, ritualized behaviors that are performed in an attempt to drive out the obsessive thoughts. OCD sufferers generally believe that their obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors are irrational but feel helpless to resist them. Those with hand-washing compulsions are obsessed with fear of contamination and often wash their hands repeatedly until they are chapped, raw and sometimes even bleeding. They may also ritualize the process, for example, by washing each finger individually and in a specific order. An interruption to the ritual might compel starting over—and over—from the beginning.

患有上面的人担心细菌and dirt will wash their hands very thoroughly and may avoid touching the faucet when turning off the water so as not to re-contaminate their hands. They may also make liberal use of hand sanitizers between washes. They will go about their day, however, without undue distress about cleanliness. For those with OCD, on the other hand, a single washing is never enough. Even after multiple washings, the anxiety associated with fear of contamination will continue to interrupt their thoughts to the point of disrupting their lives—and washing their hands does little to relieve the anxiety.

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强迫症的清除原因尚未得到精确定位。通常认为有许多因素涉及,从生物学,对心理和环境的范围。虽然众所周知,患有OCD的人的大脑发生变化,但没有扫描或测试可以诊断它明确。诊断是基于与心理健康专业人员的全面访谈。心理治疗,有或没有medication,通常是对OCD的有效治疗,特别是认知行为治疗,短期,结构化方法,专注于学习处理痴迷思想的方式,而无需诉诸强迫行为。

帮助过度洗手

在寻求帮助之前,尴尬往往会导致人们在强迫症患者患有强迫症,并试图使他们的行为隐藏起来。我们强调,清洁和强迫症的关注有明显的区别,并建议任何怀疑疾病的人问自己或自己这些问题:

  • After washing your hands, are you still worried that you might have missed a spot or not washed correctly? Even after repeated washing are you still fearful or anxious that your hands aren't clean enough?
  • 你有一个高度结构化的常规来洗手吗?你根据特定序列或数量清洗吗?你经常开始因为害怕错了吗?
  • 你是否转向极端,避免你担心可能让你暴露给细菌或污垢的地方或情况?例如,您是否避免握手或在公共场所触摸表面?
  • 你的手经常是红色,原料和chapped吗?
  • Does your anxiety about contamination and your efforts to alleviate it interfere with your relationships and daily activities?

Answering 'yes' to several of these questions might indicate obsessive-compulsive disorder and warrant a consultation with an experienced psychologist. The disorder is readily可治疗。没有人需要患有由强迫思想和强迫行为引起的焦虑和抑郁症。

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马丁郎,M.A.
Elspeth Bell,Ph.D.
迈克尔惠顿,博士。

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原始出版日期:

更新时间:2017年2月02日