An estimated 2-5% of Americans struggle with compulsivehoarding: hoarding is twice as common as强迫症是双相情感障碍和精神分裂症的四倍。如果你认为你可以成为这个群体的一部分,问问自己这些问题:你是否有大量的“东西”堆积在整个房子里?即使这些东西已经没有什么用处了,也很难把它们扔掉或送人吗?在你周围堆积如山的情况下,你是否仍有接受那些你并不真正需要的东西的冲动?如果你对这些问题的回答是肯定的,那么你可能正在与强迫性囤积作斗争。

强迫性的囤积其特点是过度收集和未能丢弃物品。无论它们是否有任何明显使用,都会保存物品。这种行为经常导致生活空间如此杂乱,即他们不能正常使用,让人们无法自由地对他们的家庭移动,并受到健康风险或火灾危险。例如,堆积报纸可以阻止出口,可能会吸引害虫,当然可以吸引火灾,如果存储在热源附近。除了这些安全问题外,严重囤积行为的人通常会在其其他地区遇到重大的个人痛苦和损伤。许多人在社会上孤立,超过50%的人囤积的人经历了显着的抑郁症。

Is a Creative Mind a Possible Cause For Hoarding Behavior?

Thomas Edison once admitted, "To invent, you need a good imagination and a pile of junk." It's a provocative statement, one that makes one wonder––could individuals who hoard be motivated to collect big piles of junk to support their creative natures? Could they be stockpiling objects because they can see many uses for them––uses that the average person cannot see? Could individuals who hoard have higher levels of creative thinking than the average person?

A link between hoarding behavior and increased creativity could have important implications for people who suffer from compulsive hoarding. Identifying a positive aspect of hoarding could help these individuals to see themselves in a more positive light, potentially alleviating some of the emotional distress and stigma associated with hoarding.

囤积行为背后是什么?

Interested in this possible link between creativity and hoarding, my colleague and I took a closer, more empirical look at the potential correlation.1To test the idea, we recruited a sample of people who willingly self-identified as "packrats," as well as a group who reported no difficulty discarding items, disliked clutter, or considered themselves to be "minimalists." We then assessed hoarding tendencies in all participants, using a scale that measured tendencies to save items and accumulate clutter (e.g., How difficult do you find the task of throwing things away?).

我们还测量了研究参与者创造力的三个不同方面:

  • 创造性成就:一个人在十个不同的创造性领域(如视觉艺术、舞蹈、音乐等)的成就如何。
  • 创造性的个性:这个人认为他或自己的程度为创意,艺术等。
  • 发散性思维任务:人们对普通物体(如砖块)或物体的用途的想象程度thinking of as许多白色食物尽可能e.

这是为了发散的思维任务,具体而言,我们认为具有高或低趋势的人们对拯救对象的人之间的差异可能是最明显的。

Hoarding Impulses Come More From Emotion Than Creativity

The results of our study showed that those who were inclined to hoard were more bothered by negative emotions, and had greater difficulty coping with negative feelings when they were upset. These factors no doubt contribute to the high percentages of depression and anxiety in those afflicted by compulsive hoarding behaviors.

There were four ways in which the two groups (self-identified "packrats" and those who had no problems discarding items) differed. Our results showed that people who scored higher on the hoarding tendencies scale:

  • Had higher levels of neuroticism
  • Were less conscientious—a personality trait characterized by neatness, order, and self-discipline
  • Possessed higher levels of impulsivity
  • 衡量痛苦耐受性的分数较低。

与我们的预期相反,我们发现囤积倾向和创造力之间没有联系。这是真实的,无论我们看什么样的创造力衡量标准,或我们如何分析数据。当我们比较高囤积倾向的人和低囤积倾向的人时,两组人在创造力的任何方面都没有差异。

我们还发现囤积倾向与群体在早期生命中经历的经验丰富的金融困难之间没有联系,或者他们如何报告他们自己是环保意识或节俭。换句话说,没有支持人们节省对象的想法,因为它们更好地思考他们对他们更多的用途,因为他们长大了,或者因为他们更关心储蓄钱。甚至担心环境(例如,对将事物陷入垃圾填埋场的影响)并没有解释为什么有些人不愿意丢弃物品。

总体而言,这项研究的调查结果告诉我们,创造性思维不太可能为获得或未能丢弃物体的趋势而导致趋势。相反,我们的结果表明,囤积的人倾向于经历增加对压力和负面情绪的脆弱性(高神经骚扰)。他们也倾向于更冲动,更小心。高度的冲动水平可能会增加囤积呼吸敦促购买或保留物体的人的可能性,从而累积物品的过度积累。较低的休闲性也可能意味着杂乱是更容易摆脱困境。在此之上,应对负面情绪的能力较弱可能会增加问题,因为具有囤积行为的个体可能难以应对与扔东西相关的任何负面情绪。

这些贡献因素应该是囤积治疗的重点

Although finding a link between hoarding behavior and creativity might have helped reduce some of the stigma associated with hoarding disorder, we found no support for the idea that hoarding is associated with higher levels of creativity. We did, however, find evidence to support a link between hoarding tendencies and high levels of neuroticism and impulsivity, as well as low levels of conscientiousness and distress tolerance. These personal characteristics may be factors contributing to the development of hoarding difficulties, and therefore should be a major focus of attention in the treatment of hoarding disorder.

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Jennifer M. Park, Ph.D.
Mary E. Dozier, B.A.

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Sources

1赫泽尔,D。M.和Hooley,J。M(2014). 创造力、个性和囤积行为。精神病学研究,220,322-327.

Date of original publication:

Updated: October 23, 2015