It's a feeling that takes you back to those tender days of adolescence, when life itself seems to revolve around that one special person, when simply laying eyes on them, being anywhere near them is an indescribable rush that makes your palms sweat, your heart race, and brings your mind to a complete halt. Do they like me? What do they think of me? Do they even notice me?你突然兴趣他们喜欢,他们触摸的物体变得神圣,你有一个不可思议的诀窍,用于在你出去时发现他们的许多Doppelgängers。

青春期不是永远,那些冲消退,giving way to the complicated highs and lows of real adult relationships, of heartbreak and compromise and sticking it out. This isn't to say that those wonderful butterflies-in-the-stomach sensations at the start of a new relationship become unattainable, just that they're now tempered by growth and experience. Yet even in adulthood, unresolved personal issues can lead one to obsess over a love interest in an emotional state known as limerence1。以关系为中心的强迫性疾病或rocd的症状也可能扩增那些非常疑虑和恐惧,并导致功能障碍和痛苦患有伤害的关系2,3

限制规定

在她的书中Love and Limerence: The Experience of Being in Love, psychologist Dorothy Tennov describes limerence. She coined the term, which refers to an unhealthy obsessive state in which an individual becomes all-consumed with securing or maintaining emotional reciprocation from their object of affection, known as the limerent object, or LO. Often this occurs despite being incapacitated by shyness in the LO's presence.

令人着迷的人因害怕拒绝而被淹没,他们的情绪决定了他们是否已经注意到他们并对如何注意力提出关注。漠不关心通常被读为秘密的激情,并且在LO拒绝之后,感受可以加剧。此外,有一种显着的能力,可以膨胀令人钦佩的品质,同时忽略甚至将负面特征重构为优势1

虽然在外面的限度方面可以类似于恋爱的正常状态,但实际上它是由侵入性,强迫和强迫思想和行为定义的非自愿负国家,这些行为通常可以具有临床意义4- 以及有问题的物理表现:心悸,出汗,头晕和饮食和睡觉模式的变化5

利润率和罗频之间的差异

Limerence exists as a constant state of anxiety, which is focused solely upon the perceived reciprocity from the LO. This leads to反刍和避免思维的模式(如分心作为一种应对策略),类似于那些oc

然而,利润率和罗频之间的一个主要区别在于如何考虑合作伙伴。前者是由压倒性的害怕拒绝的恐惧,而后者可能导致对不喜欢伴侣的迷恋5。A second major difference is that the goal of limerence is achieving emotional reciprocation, so compulsive behaviors are contingent on perceived feedback from the LO. In ROCD, the goal is to neutralize anxiety-provoking thoughts by repeating compulsive mental acts and behaviors. Noted psychologist Albert Wakin defines limerence as a combination of OCD and addiction, like living in a state of compulsory longing4

rocd的特征

While both disorders center on romantic bonds and exist at a relationship's outset, as well as negatively define the quality of a long-term commitment, the fears and compulsions of ROCD can dovetail and be in stark contrast to those of limerence. Fear of rejection and abandonment are common components, although with ROCD the fears can hobble a relationship's growth, fostering a climate of clinginess and dependency. Another hallmark of ROCD are the intense and pervasive feelings of doubt as to the "rightness" of the relationship or partner's compatibility, which can further destabilize a relationship.2

这种对伴侣的适用性和特征的关注也可以被视为极端。虽然Rocd居住在关系本身的品质上(例如,“我不在爱情中,因为在关系中没有激情”),以合作伙伴为重点的强迫症状可以作为独立疾病存在并扼杀现有的强迫性。Persistent thoughts relating to a partner's perceived physical flaws (e.g., "They're not good looking enough!") or their personality shortcomings can lead to attempts to alleviate the distress through compulsive behaviors such as seeking outside reassurance, constantly checking in on one's partner, etc.3

Certain relationship-based cognitive biases, such as thinking that disaster is certain if one leaves a relationship ("I won't find anyone else and be alone for the rest of my life!") can in turn lead to even more obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors. Dwelling on personal flaws and deficits can also be turned inward ("I'm not good enough, and that's why I ended up with him."), further strengthening partner-focused obsessions and compulsive behaviors3。当合作伙伴带来与他或她的自我价值和焦虑相关的强烈脆弱性时,对罗频症状的易感性增加了一种环:焦虑的饲料强迫性行为,这将额外的无能感受到个人的感觉自我在关系中。6

What Causes Limerence and ROCD?

参与石估和OCD的侵扰性思维与低水平的血清素和升高的多巴胺和去甲肾上腺素水平相关,或者含有脑细胞之间的化学物质,或用作脑细胞之间的信使。伙伴关注的关注,动机和目标定向行为与中枢神经系统中的多巴胺浓度的升高有关。多巴胺也与令人兴奋的感觉有关,能量升高,食欲减少,失眠和焦虑。肌肾上腺素升高与新刺激的增加的内存相关7

Recommended Treatments

基于美国精神病学协会的实践指导方针,基于最佳的基于循证的OCD治疗包括组合血清素 - 再摄取抑制剂(SRIS)和认知行为治疗(CBT), particularly the technique of暴露和反应预防(ERP)8。CBT also has particularly beneficial results with individuals who have ROCD; some of the most widely used cognitive-behavioral techniques include cognitive restructuring and ERP. Experiential techniques such as imagery rescripting have also been incorporated into CBT programs to challenge fears related to attachment- and commitment-related behaviors9

曝光和响应预防(ERP)可用于打破忏悔触发器与执行强迫仪式的冲动之间的联系。例如,有一个有rocd的个人可以被要求通过重复句子来触发她的疑虑和关注,“我对这种关系疑问。”在经历与此思想相关的困境时,她会鼓励她焦虑并注意到最终会消散的焦虑,而不是强迫地寻求其他人的保证9

对于那些有Rocd来意识到,当他们的适应不良信念突出时,甚至天然存在的思想也可能被解释为灾难性和消极的。这可能导致功能失调的反应和增加的痛苦。例如,如果一个人对如何在理想的关系中感受和思考的特定信念(“一直思考他的伴侣”或“从不批评他的伴侣”),但并没有在他的关系中经历他们,他解释了这一点,因为没有恋爱。虽然在鼓舞时,但他可能会认识到他们可能被认为是极端的,如果他们要实现他们不会是实际的或可取的:在工作时思考他的伴侣不会富有成效9

冥想和练习介意也可能证明保持存在和居中,而不是对过去或未来浪漫幻想的努力。还有利益加入了12步计划,以寻求支持类似问题的人之间的支持。此外,读取限值和ROCD是有助于深入了解家庭动态和附着模式如何影响不良模式10

为你推荐

Katherine J. Gold, M.D., M.S.W., M.S.
米歇尔罗森哈尔
Abigail Powers Lott,Ph.D.
米歇尔罗森哈尔
赫尔曼R. Lukow II,Ph.D.

注释

Sources

1. Tennov, D. (1998). Love and limerence: The experience of being in love.Chelsea,MI:Scarborough House.

2. Doron,G.,Derby,D. S.,Szepsenwol,O.,&Talmor,D。(2012A)。污染的爱情:在两个非临床队列中探索以相关的关系为中心的强迫症状。痴迷和相关疾病杂志,1(1),16-24。

3. Doron, G., Derby, D. S., Szepsenwol, O., & Talmor, D. (2012b). Flaws and all: Exploring partner-focused obsessive-compulsive symptoms.痴迷和相关疾病杂志,1(4),234-243。

4. Wakin,A.,&Vo,D. B.(2008)。爱情变异:Wakin-Vo i.d.r.石浆模型。在跨学科网上。第二全球会议;挑战亲密的边界。

5. Willmott, L., & Bentley, E. (2015). Exploring the lived-experience of limerence: a journey toward authenticity.The Qualitative Report, 20(1), 20-38.

6. Doron,G.,Szepsenwol,O.,Karp,E.,&Gal,N.(2013)。沉迷于亲密关系:测试双重关系 - 漏洞假设。行业疗法和实验性精神病学杂志,44(4),433-440。

7. Fisher,H.(2000)。欲望,吸引力,附件:三个主要情绪系统的生物学和演变,用于交配,繁殖和养育。性教育与治疗杂志,25(1),96-104。

8. Koran,L. M.,Hanna,G.L.,Hollander,E.,Nestadt,G.,&Simpson,H. B.(2007)。患有强迫症患者的实践指南。The American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(7),1。

9. Doron,G.,&Derby,D。(2017)。与关系相关的OCD症状的评估和治疗(ROCD):模块化方法。在J. Abramowitz,D. Mckay,&E. Storch(EDS。),强迫症的Wiley手册(PP 547-564)。Hoboken,NJ:Wiley-Blackwell。

10. http://limerence.net/limerence-faq/limerence-treatment.html.

Date of original publication:

更新时间:2019年9月12日