恐慌攻击和恐188平台首页慌症:症状,治疗,原因和金宝博188滚球推荐应对策略

恐慌攻击和恐188平台首页慌症:症状,治疗,原因和金宝博188滚球推荐应对策略

What Is Panic Disorder?

金宝博188滚球推荐恐慌障碍的特点是反复恐慌发作。188平台首页恐慌的攻击是一种突然的恐惧或不适的强烈恐惧或不适,伴随着一群身体和认知症状,包括心悸,呼吸急促,头晕,颤抖,令人垂死,疯狂或失败的恐惧。

恐慌攻击是常188平台首页见的所有焦虑188体育平台app症but what sets panic disorder apart is that panic attacks are unexpected and occur "out of the blue" without an obvious trigger (American Psychiatric Association, 2013; Craske & Barlow, 2007). These unexpected panic attacks must be associated with a significant change in behavior or be followed by at least one month of persistent worry about having another attack or about what will happen if you have another panic attack.

金宝博188滚球推荐恐慌症是许多人经历的疾病 - 美国每年的大约2-3%的人遭受恐慌症(Kessler,Chiu,Demler和Walters,2005; Kessler,Petukhova,Sampson,Zaslavsky,&Wittchen,2012)。

恐慌攻击测验188平台首页:我有恐慌症吗?金宝博188滚球推荐

为了管理威胁情况,人类已经进化了,体验了“战斗或飞行”的反应。As part of this response, when humans are confronted with a dangerous situation, their body mobilizes by sending blood away from their extremities (e.g. hands and feet) and into the major muscles, producing adrenaline, and increasing heart rate so that we are better equipped to fight off danger.

These physiological responses can actually help us to survive. However, sometimes we experience these physiological responses, like an increased heartbeat, that are not in the presence of danger at all, but something else entirely. In these cases, our bodies can misinterpret these physiological signals as being indicators of danger or a "true threat." For example, people may experience learned anxiety due to previous associations between elevated heart rate and panic attacks and may misinterpret bodily sensations as signs of imminent death or loss of control. In this way, one may start to fear these physiological responses, which is what we call "fear of fear" (Craske & Barlow, 2007). "Fear of fear" maintains or perpetuates panic attacks and panic symptoms, which becomes a vicious cycle. In other words, you experience an increased heart rate, which you interpret as negative, which makes you feel anxious, which further makes your heart rate increase and it often spirals from there. These associations may almost happen automatically, even without conscious thought, but this is what is likely going on behind the scenes.

恐慌发作的症状188平台首页

精神障碍诊断和统计手册的第5版明金宝博188滚球推荐确界定了恐慌症的症状。

  • 经常发生意外的恐慌攻击188平台首页
    • 恐慌攻击是严重的恐惧或不适的突然增加。这种不适通常在几分钟内达到最糟糕的峰值。在此期间,有四种(或更多)以下症状:
      1. 冲击心脏,心悸或加速心率。
      2. 出汗。
      3. 颤抖或颤抖。
      4. 呼吸短促或窒息的感觉。
      5. 窒息的感觉。
      6. Chest pain or discomfort.
      7. 恶心或腹部痛苦。
      8. 感到头晕,不稳定,壮大,或微弱。
      9. 发冷或热情。
      10. 麻木或刺痛的感觉。
      11. Feelings of unreality or being detached from oneself.
      12. 害怕失去控制或“疯狂。”
      13. Fear of dying.
  • 在这些恐慌攻击中至少有一个,必须经历:188平台首页
    • 继续关注未来的恐慌攻击或后果188平台首页
    • 与攻击有关的行为的重大变化(例如,避免采取楼梯)
  • 症状不能是由物质或药物或药物或患病造成的

焦虑攻击治疗

There are multiple effective treatment options for panic disorder. These options include both psychological/therapeutic treatments and medical treatments.

Psychological/Therapeutic

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy(CBT)被认为是黄金治疗标准,特别是对于恐慌症。金宝博188滚球推荐CBT专注于教育客户的障碍,识别和改变不良思想和恐惧,学习放松和其他应对策略,以及帮助客户面临恐惧。研究表明,当存在其他同血障碍的情况下,CBT对于恐慌障碍也有效,金宝博188滚球推荐并且使CBT有效的关键部件是暴露(面对您的恐惧“)模块(Hofmann,2011)。

Additionally, there is some evidence thatAcceptance and Commitment Therapy(法案),基于谨慎的压力还原处理(MBSR)以及在线和计算机化治疗有效治疗恐慌症(Arch等,2017)。金宝博188滚球推荐然而,绝大多数研究支持CBT治疗恐慌症的长期成功。金宝博188滚球推荐与CBT和其他治疗相比,需要更多的研究来探讨MBSR和行动工作的程度,但初步结果是积极的。一般来说,建议在心理和医学领域内的研究基础上的经验支持的治疗方法来治疗恐慌症。金宝博188滚球推荐

医疗的

对于其他情绪和焦虑症是真实的,使用188体育平台app选择性血清素再摄取抑制剂(SSRI's; e.g.., Paxil, Prozac, Zoloft), Benzodiazepines (e.g., Xanax, Lorazepam), and选择性去甲肾上腺素再摄取抑制剂(SNRI;例如,Cymbalta,Effexor,Pristiq)是恐慌症的常见医学治疗。金宝博188滚球推荐此外,D-Cycloserine是现在正在探索的药物,作为增强CBT的影响(例如,Hofmann等,2013)。这些药物可能具有副作用并服用它们会导致耐受性,戒断症状和依赖性,因此您必须在开始或停止这些药物之前与医生咨询。有证据表明除了接受行为治疗外,还可以服用其中一种药物(例如,CBT)可以显着益处恐慌症的患者,尽管本身寻求心理治疗是很有效的(Arch等,2017)。金宝博188滚球推荐

Coping Strategies & Resources for Supporting Someone with Panic Attacks

自我教育

恐慌障碍最令人恐惧的早期经历之一是恐慌发作,而不知道身体发生的事情。金宝博188滚球推荐通过更多地学习恐慌攻击和恐慌障碍,您可以开始标记并确定您所188平台首页拥有的经验。金宝博188滚球推荐虽然恐慌攻击的经验非常令人痛苦,但恐慌的攻击不会让你死亡或完全失去188平台首页控制,他们并不意味着你疯了。有时候,只知道正在发生的事情可以帮助人们感觉更好。例如,下次你有一个恐慌的攻击,你可以告诉自己“这是焦虑。我以前觉得这很好。”

Acceptance

这可能会对反直观表示,但试图接受一个人的情感体验,在恐慌袭击中会非常有用。188平台首页提醒自己,焦虑就像一波,发生了什么必须下来。反对这种经历的战斗从事“恐惧”循环可以让你感觉更糟糕。如果您注意到恐慌症状爬行,请标记您的体验,您提醒自己,“我会没事的。这将及时传递。”接受您的经验,而不是反对它,可能会帮助您的恐慌症状更快地减少,并且沿途越来越容易。

Mindfulness

Mindfulness涉及花时间关注目前的时刻,并使用非贫旧立场(事情并不好或坏,他们只是)。这可能听起来很简单,但它可能是棘手的,因为我们的头脑经常徘徊。尝试每天花费一段时间,每天关注一次活动10分钟。例如,专注于呼吸的经验:注意到你有的身体感觉,你呼吸的呼吸声,胸部的感觉,随着你的呼吸,进入和离开肺部的空气的感觉。试试你的最好让你的思想集中在这些感觉上。如果您发现主意徘徊,请轻轻将其重定向到锻炼身体。定期参与这些练习可以帮助您感到情绪为中心。签出网站,应用程序和书籍,了解有关一心一致和引导谨慎练习的更多信息。

Approach, Don't Avoid

Try your best not to avoid or push away feelings of panic. Instead, breathe into the experience and practice your acceptance (as described above). Avoiding situations or bodily sensations associated with panic attacks may seem helpful in the short-term because it helps to immediately make our anxiety decrease. But in the long-term, it is not helpful because it teaches our brains that those physical sensations were a "true alarm" or something to really be afraid of. Instead, if we approach the sensations and situations that make us anxious, perhaps a little bit at a time, we can rewire our brains over time to learn that these things are not so scary after all. By repeating this approach process over and over, you can begin to see that these physical sensations you are having are not so scary and this can help reduce panic symptoms in the future or at least make them much more manageable in the moment. Remember the saying, "avoidance is anxiety's best friend" because the more we avoid, the more anxious we tend to feel. So, try out approaching the things that make you anxious with an "I can do this!" attitude.

普遍存在of Panic Disorder

金宝博188滚球推荐恐慌症每年在美国和欧洲每年影响2-3%的人,这取决于种族和种族的速度。平均而言,美国本土印度人群体的恐慌症比非拉丁裔白人美国人更高。金宝博188滚球推荐相比之下,非洲裔美国人,拉美裔美国人,加勒比海,和亚裔美国人都经历了比非拉丁裔白人美国人更低的速率。此外,它已经完全成熟,雌性是恐慌障碍的可能性的两倍(Asnaani,Gutner,Hinton,&Hofmann,2009; Mclean,Asnaani,Litz,&Hofmann,2011金宝博188滚球推荐)。已经确定了许多因素(例如,生物影响,气质,暴露于压力源和创伤,认知因素和环境因素)可能影响恐慌症(Mclean&Anderson,2009)的性差异。金宝博188滚球推荐然而,没有一个理论已经确定,因此恐慌症率的性别差异的基本原因仍然未知。金宝博188滚球推荐

The typical course of panic disorder begins in adolescence and peaks in early to mid-twenties, with symptoms rarely present in children under the age of 14 or in older adults over the age of 64 (Kessler et al., 2012). Caregivers can look for symptoms of panic attacks in adolescents, followed by notable changes in their behavior (e.g., avoiding experiencing strong physical sensations), to help potentially identify the onset of panic disorder. Panic disorder is most likely to develop between the ages of 20-24 years and although females are more likely to have panic disorder, there are no significant sex differences in how the disorder presents (McLean et al., 2011).

文化差异Related to Panic Disorder

重要的是要考虑一个文化镜头,以最能了解恐慌障碍的礼物。金宝博188滚球推荐研究表明,人们认为恐慌袭击的方式存在文化差异,并以不同的种族和族裔群体接受和感知恐慌障碍的诊断方式。金宝博188滚球推荐188平台首页

跨文化的恐慌障碍诊断有证据表明,如金宝博188滚球推荐Ataque de Nervios.在拉丁美洲社区。研究表明,非洲裔美国人经历了更多功能损害(即,对一个人完成日常活动的能力影响)而不是非拉丁裔白人美国人。这不是与恐慌症相关的文化因素的详尽清单,但它确实突出了可能影响恐慌症的呈现以及恐慌症状解释的个体差异(Asnaani,Gut金宝博188滚球推荐ner,Hinton,&Hofmann,2009; Hofmann&Hinton,2014; Lewis-Fernández,等。,2010)。

恐慌症的病因/原因和危险因素金宝博188滚球推荐

金宝博188滚球推荐恐慌症被认为有一个心理学概念化(Craske&Barlow,2007)。这并不意味着恐慌攻击是由于生物疾病。188平台首页这表明是什么意思,有一些可以通过基因遗传或通过的生物因素,因此可能导致一些人比其他人更有可能经历恐慌症症状。金宝博188滚球推荐这可能是为什么恐慌障碍似乎在家庭中运行金宝博188滚球推荐。换句话说,如果一个家庭成员具有恐慌症,另一个家庭成员更有可能与没有恐慌症的家族史的金宝博188滚球推荐人体验恐慌症状或恐慌症。注意,只需继承这些漏洞即可恐慌不是使恐慌攻击的开始不可避免或不可改变。188平台首页事实上,可以以防止恐慌攻击的方式思考和行动。188平台首页

其次,恐慌症的心理学概念化强调了心理因素的影响(Meureet,White,Ritz,Roth,Hofm金宝博188滚球推荐ann,&Brown,2006)。这种心理因素是指对身体感觉的恐惧,或者一系列信仰,以使个人特别害怕身体症状,例如相信赛车的心可能意味着心脏病。有时,这被讨论为焦虑敏感性或信仰焦虑是有害的。同样,相信身体症状有害可能会增加经历恐慌发作的可能性,但它确实如此不是make having a panic attack inevitable. Instead, panic attacks can seem abnormal if they occur at the wrong time when there is no real reason to be afraid. It is important to consider, however, that anxiety can also be adaptive or helpful in contexts where there is a true threat.

具有恐慌症的合并症金宝博188滚球推荐

Until recently, the panic disorder was not distinguished from agoraphobia (distressing anxiety resulting from being outside the home, traveling via public transit, being in open or claustrophobic environments, or being in crowds that generally leads to extreme avoidance due to fear of not being able to escape in those situations; APA, 2013). As it stands in the current精神障碍的诊断和统计手册 - 5agoraphobia is one of the most common disorders to co-occur with panic disorder. Current estimates contend that just under 2% of teens and adults have agoraphobia (Kessler et al., 2012). Often, people associate panic attacks or their panic disorder with certain places, people, or events and the fear of another attack occurring can lead to comorbid fears of the location or idea that there is no escape, which leads to extreme avoidance. Panic disorder can also occur simultaneously with other anxiety disorders, such as Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and/or Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), for example.

Depression also commonly co-occurs with panic disorder, with reports estimating comorbidity between 10-65% over one's life. This comorbidity is more likely to develop at the same time that panic disorder is recognized and diagnosed, although roughly 30% of people have major depression before meeting criteria for panic disorder as well (APA, 2013).

People with panic disorder may also experience comorbid bipolar disorder, alcohol or substance use disorder, or medical problems that accompany their panic. It is common for individuals with panic disorder to have thyroid problems, respiratory issues, heart problems, or feelings of dizziness (APA, 2013). In general, it has been reported that 93.7% of people with panic disorder meet criteria for at least one other medical or mental disorder (Arch, Kirk, & Craske, 2017). That being said, comorbidity is不是不可避免地具有恐慌症,并且与医疗金宝博188滚球推荐专业人士彻底讨论您的症状是很重要的。此外,恐慌障碍与医疗问题之间的链接的因果关系仍不清楚。金宝博188滚球推荐

When Someone Is Having A Panic Attack

Below are some tips for you or your loved one to consider during a panic attack:

  • 焦虑不会永远增加,你不能永远遇到焦虑的高峰水平。在生理上,我们的焦虑不会成为任何更高,我们的身体不会无限期地保持这种焦虑的高峰水平。在那一点上,焦虑不起,但下降。达到那个峰值是不舒服的,但重要的是要记住这种焦虑甚至会出现,然后随时下降。
  • 情绪就像一波,他们会来,他们会去。
  • 你之前经历过这个,你知道要期待什么,你将能够处理它。
  • 避免是焦虑最好的朋友。现在避免意味着将来会持续焦虑。

The following websites and brochures provide useful information for helping and supporting loved ones with panic disorder:

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来源

American Psychiatric Association (2013).Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders (5th ed.).Washington, DC.

柯克,拱门,J·J。,& Craske m . g .(2017)。锅ic Disorder. In W. Craighead, D. J. Miklowitz, & L. W. Craighead (Eds.),精神病理学:历史,诊断和经验基础(第85-149页)。约翰瓦里和儿子。

Asnaani,A.,Guter,C.,Hinton,D.,&Hofmann,S. G.(2009)。金宝ࡕ188平台首页8;188滚球推荐恐慌障碍,恐慌发作和种族族群的恐慌症状:协同精神病流行病学调查的结果。CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 15,249-254。

Craske,M. G.&Barlow,D. H.(2007)。掌握你的焦虑和恐慌:治疗师指南。纽约:牛津大学出版社,Inc。

Craske,M. G.&Barlow,D. H.(2007)。Mastery of Your Anxiety and Panic: Workbook for Primary Care Settings. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.

Craske,M.G.,Kircanski,K.,埃普斯坦,A.,Wittchen,H. U.,Pine,D. S.,Lewis-Fernández,R.,&Hinton,D。(2010年)。金宝博188滚球推荐恐慌症:对DSM-v的DSM-IV恐慌障碍和提案综述。抑郁和焦虑27.(2), 93-112.

Hofmann,S. G.(2011)。An introduction to modern CBT: Psychological solutions to mental health problems.Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Hofmann,S. G.,&Hinton,D. E.(2014)。焦虑症的跨文化方面。188体育平台app目前的精神病报告,16:450

Hofmann,S.G.,Smits,J.A.,Rosenfield,D.,Simon,N.,Otto,M. W.,Meuret,A. E.,...与Pollack,M. H.(2013)。D-Cycloserine作为社交焦虑症的认知行为治疗的增强策略。美国精神病学杂志170.(7),751-758。

Kessler,R.C.,Chiu,W.T.,Demler,O.和Walters,E. E.(2005)。12个月DSM-IV疾病在国家合并症调查复制中的患病率,严重程度和合并症。Archives of General Psychiatry62.(6),617-627。

Kessler,R.C.,Petukhova,M.,Sampson,N. A.,Zaslavsky,A. M.,&Wittchen,H. U.(2012)。(2012)。12个月和终身患病率和终身病态病态在美国焦虑和情绪障碍的风险。国际精神科研究方法21.(3), 169-184.

Lewis-Fernandez R。辛顿丧,拉里亚a·J。型erson, E. H., Hofmann, S. G., Craske, M. G.,…Liao, B, (2010). Culture and the anxiety disorders: recommendations for DSM-V.抑郁和焦虑27(2)那21.2–229.

McLean, C. P., & Anderson, E. R. (2009). Brave men and timid women? A review of the gender differences in fear and anxiety.临床心理学评论,29(6),496-505。

Mclean,C.P.,Asnaani,A.,Litz,B.T.,&Hofmann,S. G。(2011)。焦虑症的性别差异:患病率,疾病,合并症和疾病188体育平台app负担。精神病学杂志,45,1027-1035。

Meuret,A. E.,White,K. S.,Ritz,T.,Roth,W.T.,Hofmann,S. G.&Brown,T. A.(2006)。(2006)。恐慌攻击症状尺寸及其与恐慌障碍疾病特征的关系。金宝博188滚球推荐精神病学杂志,40,520-527.