Anxiety and Phobias

Anxiety and Phobias

A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder that describes an excessive and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation. Phobias involve intense fear surrounding an object or situation that realistically poses little or no real danger. They are different from common fears in that the associated anxiety is so strong it interferes with daily life and the ability to function normally. People suffering from phobias may go to extreme lengths to avoid encountering or experiencing the feared object or situation.

Though many people with phobias realize that their worry is unrealistic or unwarranted, feelings of fear and anxiety persist and seem unmanageable, leaving sufferers feeling out of control.

美国精神病关联鉴定了三种类型的恐惧症:

  • 特定的恐惧症:由于害怕危险或危害而避免活动或物体的极端长度。
    • Examples: Fear of heights, snakes, spiders
  • Social Phobia: A fear of being humiliated or underperforming in social situations. Also known as social anxiety disorder.
    • Examples: Fear of public speaking, public restrooms, eating in front of others
  • Agoraphobia: Feeling discomfort in situations where escape is difficult or help is not readily available.
    • 例子:害怕离开房子,公共交通,小空间

Common Phobias

A few of the most common specific phobias include:

  • arachnophobia:害怕蜘蛛
  • Ophidiophobia: fear of snakes
  • Acrophobia: fear of heights
  • 恐犬病:对狗的恐惧
  • Astraphobia: fear of thunder and/or lightning
  • Trypophobia: fear of holes
  • Aerophobia: fear of flying
  • Xenophobia: fear of the unknown or unfamiliar (such as foreigners)
  • Claustrophobia: fear of small spaces
  • 倒唱会:害怕公开演讲
  • Emetophobia: fear of vomiting

症状of phobias

恐惧症的症状与恐慌发作的症状类似。面对特定的对象,活动或情况,即激烈恐惧的主题,恐惧症的个体可能表现出以下症状:

  • 无法控制的焦虑感,恐惧和恐慌
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Difficulty breathing
  • 出汗
  • Trembling, shaking
  • Abdominal discomfort
  • Tightening of the chest and feelings of choking
  • Nausea and dizziness
  • Hot or cold flashes
  • An overwhelming desire to escape

Causes of phobias

Most phobias develop in childhood and are commonly passed down by a family member. However, the main cause of phobias is still unknown. Frequent causes of phobias include:

  • Traumatic experience involving object of fear
  • 在特定情况或对象周围体验恐慌攻击
  • Witnessing someone else being harmed by specific activity or object
  • Hearing a tragic story involving a specific activity or object

Having phobias and fears is common, and often rational. However, if these fears begin to interfere with daily life, consult with a doctor. For example, a phobia of driving on the freeway should not be so strong that it keeps a person from driving to work or school.

恐惧症治疗

Thankfully, phobias are highly treatable, and treatments are usually very effective. Many who receive therapy for phobias see significant results in as little as 1-4 treatment sessions.

Some utilize self-help strategies for dealing with and treating phobias, which may be effective for certain individuals. However, if the phobias in question are severe, especially if they're severe to the point of causing panic attacks, you may want to find professional help for treating your phobia. Those with a clinically diagnosed phobia might consider seeking professional treatment using one of the following treatment methods:

  • 认知行为治疗(CBT): a form of psychotherapeutic treatment that focuses on exploring the patterns of thinking that lead to inappropriate responses in an individual.
  • Exposure Therapy:一种心理治疗的一种形式,使患者以逐步,系统的,安全的方式暴露于恐惧。暴露治疗使用灭绝学会教导个人,因为他们所恐惧的对象或情况并不真正导致预期的负面反应,导致恐惧对象面临的痛苦下降。
  • 基于谨慎的压力减少(MBSR):一种方法论教会从时刻到瞬间意识到他们的想法,感受和感觉,没有判断力或责备。
  • 验收和承诺治疗(法案):一种心灵心理治疗,有助于指导人们接受负面经历和挑战

Supplementing these methods with alternative treatments like meditation,mindfulness培训或yoga可以促进恢复。

Most Popular Phobia Resources:

Katherine K. Dahlsgaard,Ph.D.
Carol S. Lee, Ph.D.
Samuel Hunley, Ph.D.
Carol S. Lee, Ph.D.