你有没有经历过突然和强烈的恐惧或不适的匆忙？如果是这样，您可能是在终生期间在某些时候有恐慌攻击的30％的人之一。这symptoms of a panic attack可以变化。有些人觉得他们的心开始比赛，而其他人则经历斯威夫ting, trembling and shaking, stomach distress, or tingling sensations. A panic attack can often feel overwhelming, and it can be a very frightening experience. Although panic attacks can sometimes take people by surprise, they are often related to the kinds of fears that people have, so they come to be expected in certain situations.
Some people with social anxiety disorder tend to get panic attacks when they are in an anxiety-provoking social situation, like giving a speech or talking to a stranger. This means that their panic attacks are related to their social anxiety disorder. This overlap of social anxiety and panic attacks happens so often that a major change was introduced in the newest edition of the精神疾病诊断与统计手册(DSM-5)—a "panic attack specifier" can now be applied to any psychiatric diagnosis. In other words, a person whose panic attacks are related to their social anxiety disorder would now receive a diagnosis of "Social Anxiety Disorder with Panic Attacks." Assigning diagnoses this way certainly helps give clinicians a better understanding of their patients' symptoms. But, what else does it tell us? Do socially anxious patients who get panic attacks differ from those who do not in other important ways?
When Panic Attacks and Social Anxiety Combine
Together with colleagues from Columbia University, we have been studying these questions and more. We wanted to find how a panic attack specifier may help us better understand people with social anxiety disorder. In one study, we examined the responses of 1,138 people with social anxiety disorder who had taken part in a large national survey of mental disorders; about one-quarter of these individuals experienced social anxiety-related panic attacks.
Our observations suggest that there is a significant difference between social anxiety disorder with versus without panic attacks. Those with social anxiety-related panic attacks seemed to have more severe and complicated cases of social anxiety disorder. They exhibited the following:
- 更强的社交焦虑。这y had a stronger fear of social situations and they were more likely to avoid feared social situations.
- Harmful coping skills.Our findings show a higher likelihood to use alcohol and illicit drugs to cope with their social anxiety.
- Higher risk for other psychiatric disorders.这y were also more likely to have other kinds of psychiatric disorders in addition to social anxiety disorder.
Why The Panic Attack Specifier Is Important
由于许多其他研究发现了在其他类型的精神疾病中的恐慌攻击说明符类似的影响，因此未来的研究应该专注于检查为什么people who get panic attacks are more at risk for experiencing complicated and impairing mental health issues. Are panic attacks a manifestation of an underlying biological or psychological vulnerability? Getting to the bottom of panic attacks and how they affect our overall mental health can help guide the development of effective prevention programs for a broad range of psychiatric disorders.
Date of original publication:April 01, 2015